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1. If she had worked harder, she _____.

A. would succeed B. had succeeded C. should succeed D. would have succeeded

2.If my lawyer ___here last Saturday, he ____me from going.

A. had been ; would have prevented B. had been, would prevent

C. were; would prevent D. were; would have prevented

3. Without electricity, human life ____quite different today.

A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be

4. ---If he ___, he _____that food.

---Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately.

A. was warned; would not takeB. had been warned; would not have taken

C. would be warned; had not taken D. would have been warned; had not taken

5. You didn’t let me drive. If we ___in turn, you ______so tired.

A. drove; didn’t get B. drove; wouldn’t get

C. were driving; wouldn’t get D. had driven; wouldn’t have got

6. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she ____, she would have met my brother..

A. has come B. did come C. came D. had come

7. Tom ought not to ____me your secret, but he meant no harm.

A. have told B. tell C. be telling D. having told

8. I told Sally how to get here, but perhaps I ____for her.

A. had to write it outB. must have written it out

C. should have written it out D. ought to write it out

9. We ____last night, but we went to the concert instead.

A. must have studied B. might study

C. should have studied D. would study

10. I wish I ____you yesterday.

A. did see B. were to see C. saw D. had seen

11. “He is a brave man.” “ I wish I ___his courage.”

A. have B. had C. will have D. would have

12. “Have you ever been to Beijing?” “ No, but I wish I ______.”

A. would B. could C. had D. have

13. The plant is dead. I ___it more water.

A. will give B. would have given C. must give D. should have given

14. There was plenty of time. She ____.

A. mustn’t have hurried B. needn’t have hurried

C. mustn’t hurry D. wouldn’t have hurried

15. “I’ll tell Mary about her new job”. “You ____her last week.”

A. ought to tell B. must tell

C. would have told D. should have told

16 “ No one was prepared for the teacher’s question.” “We ___the lessons last night.”

A. would have read B. ought to have read

C. could have read D. might have read

17. He ____you more help, even though he was very busy.

A. might have given B. might give

C. may have given D. may given

18. I would love ___to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report.

A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone

19. ---I stayed at a hotel while in New York.

----Oh, did you? You _____with Barbara.

A. could have stayed B. could stay C. would stay D. must have stayed

20. Sorry I’m late. I____ have turned off the alarm clock and gone back to sleep again.

A. might B. should C. can D. will

21. “Did you go to see the football match yesterday?” “No, I didn’t feel well, but I would have gone if I ____.”

A. did B. have C. would D. had

22. He insisted that we ___early the next day

A. start B. started C. would start D. had started

23. “He is a very brave man”. Yes, I wish I ___his courage.

A. have B. had C. will have D. would have

24. If there were no subjunctive mood, English _____much easier.

A. will be B. would have been

C. could have been D. would be

25. The guard at the gate insisted that everybody ___the rules.

A. obeys B. obey C. will obey D. would obey

Keys: 1---5.DADBD 6—10 DACCD 11—15 BCDBD

16—20BABAA 21---25 DABDB

虚拟语气是一种动词形式,表示说话人的一种愿望,假设,怀疑,猜测, 建议等含义,虚拟语气所表示的含义不是客观存在的事实。

If I were you, I'd take them away.


If I had met Li Hua, I could had told him.


If I had time. I could come to help you.


He suggested that our class should be divided into five groups.


He speaks to us as if he had been there.



1) 虚拟语气用在简单句中,表示祝愿,命令。

May you be happy.


May you have a good time.


May the friendship between us last long.


Have a good journey!


You go out!


2) 虚拟语气用在宾语从句中。动词 wish, suggest,order,insist, propose,等词后面的宾语从句表示的是一种虚拟语气, 宾语从句中的动词动作表示的只是一种愿望,要求。

I wish she would be on my side.


I wish I could help him.


He insisted that all of us should be there on time by any means.


动词 demand, suggest, order, insist, propose 后面的从句中,"should" 可以省略。

The teacher suggested that we (should) clean the blackboard after class. 老师建议我们课后把黑板擦了。

He ordered that the students wash the clothes every week by themselves. 他要求学生每周都要自己洗衣服。

3) 虚拟语气用在主语从句中。

在句型 "It is important (necessary, strange, natural) that .... " 中,that 后面的从句中的谓语动词用: should + 动词原形

It's necessary that we should have a walk now.


It's natural that she should do so.


It's important that we should take good care of the patient.


4) 虚拟语气用在状语从句中。



条件从句 结果从句

If I (we,you,he,they)+ 动词过去式.. if I (he,she) were... I (we) should + 动词原形。 He (you,they) would + 动词原形。


条件从句 结果从句

If I(we,you,he,they)+ had + 过去分词 I(we)should + have+ 过去分词。He (you,they) would + have + 过去分词。

If I were you, I should buy it.


If I had time, I would study French.


If she knew English,she would not ask me for help.


If you had got up earlier, you could have caught the train.


If it were fine tomorrow,I would go shopping.



1) 有时if引导的状语从句可以省略 if,而把从句中的动词 were, had 或 should 移到主语前面。

Were she younger, she would do it .

如果她年青点, 她就会干的。

Had he known her address, he would had gone to visite her.


2) 有时表示虚拟语气的条件从句或者主句都可以省略,而只剩下一个主句或者一个条件从句。

I could help you.


If I had time.


She should have come to the party.


If he had much more money.


3) 虚拟语气中,条件从句的动词动作可以和主句的动词动作时态不一致。 If they had studied hard, they could do it easily now.


If he had not taken my advice, he wouldn't do it much better like this.





1.I would rather Tom___________(come) tomorrow.

2.It seems as if it_____________(be) winter now.

3.What would have happened if you ______________(not help) her child?

4.It is strange that he _____________ (think) so.

5.I wish I ____________(meet) my uncle yesterday.

6.Galileo insisted that the earth______________(move) the sun.

7.Supposing the weather __________(be) bad, where would you go?

8.But for your help, I couldn’t _______(find) the place.

9.What do you think would happened if there __________(be) no light in the day?

10.I was very busy yesterday, otherwise I ________(go) to the party.

11.Without your help the old man_____(not live) now.

12.It is high time you________(take) the medicine ,sir.

13.I wish I ____________________( attend) the meeting yesterday.

14.I wish I __________________(can) fly.

15.He wished he ___________________(not fall) in love with her before.

16. I would rather you _______________(paint) the wall green next time.

17.I would rather she _______________(not do) that.

18.If only I ______________(take) your advice.

19. If only I ________(be) a bird!

20. It was John who broke the window. Why are you talking to me as if I ______ (do) it.

21. My mom suggests that we _____ eat out for a change this weekend.

22. Don’t handle the vase as if it ______(be) made of steel.

23. If he ______ (follow) my advice, he wouldn’t have lost his job.

24. We took a taxi to the lecture hall. Otherwise we ______ (be) late for the meeting.

25. If we ______ (book) a table earlier, we wouldn’t be standing here in a queue. 单句改错:

1. If I was you, I would run faster.

2. If I live near my office, I would walk to work.

3. I know nothing about the film. If I knew about it, I will tell you.

4. If she worked hard enough, she would have passed the English exam.

5. If it were not rain tomorrow, they might go to the Great Wall.

6. If it were not for the fact that she couldn’t sing, I would invite her to the party.

7. Should the weather fine, we might go on a trip.

8. She was very busy yesterday, otherwise she would come to the meeting.

9. I wish I was as tall as you.

10. How I wish I can pay a visit to Paris.

11. He wishes that he studied French instead Japanese in the college.

12. I would rather you pay me now.

13. It’s high time that we go to bed.

14. Look at the trouble I am in! If only I followed your advice.

15. If you asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now.

16. He would be a good sportsman now if he trained regularly.


1. If I were you, I would go there.


2. If he had eaten it , he would have have died.


3. If it should snow tomorrow, we would play a snow game.



1. came 2. were 3. hadn’t helped 4. should think 5. had met 6. moves 7. were 8. have found

9. were 10. would have gone 11. wouldn’t lives 12. took 13. had attended 14. could

15. hadn’t fallen 16. pointed 17. hadn’t done 18. had taken 19. were 20. had done 21.should 22 .were 23.had followed 24.would have been 25.had booked


1. was—were 2. live—lived 3. will—would 4. she+ had 5. not+ to 6. couldn’t can’t

7. weather+ be 8. would + have 9. was—were 10. can—could 11. instead—of

12. pay—paid 13. go—went 14. I + had 15. you+ had 16. he + had


1. Were I you,….. 2. Had he eaten it,… 3. Should it snow,…



1. Sorry, I am too busy now. If I ____ time, I would certainly go for an outing with you. (2012 湖南)

A. have had B. had had C. haveD. had

2. If my car ____ more reliable, I would have driven to Lasa instead of flying last summer. (2012 陕西)

A. was B. had beenC. should beD. would be

3. We ____ the difficulty together, but why didn’t you tell me? (2012 北京)

A. should face B. might face C. could have facedD. must have faced

4. We lost our way in that small village, otherwise we ____ more places of interest yesterday. (2012 福建)

A. visited B. had visited C. would visitD. would have visited

5. Grace doesn’t want to move to New York because she thinks if she ____ there, she wouldn’t be able to see her parents very often. (2012 安徽)

A. lives B. would liveC. having askedD. were to live

6. But for the help of my English teacher, I ____ the first prize in the English Writing Competition.(2009 福建)

A. would not win B. would not have won

C. would win D. would have won

7. Thank you for all your hard work last week. I don’t think we ____ it without you.(2008 山东)

A. can manage B. could have managed

C. could manage D. can have managed

8. _____ fired, your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut off. (2006 湖北)

A. Would you beB. Should you be

C. Could you beD. Might you be

9. --- Do you mind if I open the window?

--- ____ I feel a bit cold. (2004 广东)

A. Of course not. B. I’d rather you didn’t. C. Go ahead. D. Why not?

10. It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I ____ in love, at the age of seven, with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown. (2002 上海)

A. wouldn’t have fallen B. had not fallen

C. should fallD. were to fall

11. What would have happened ____, as far as the riverbank? (2001 上海)

A. Bob had walked fartherB. if Bob should walk farther

C. had Bob walked fartherD. if Bob walked farther

12. He hesitated for a moment before kicking the ball, otherwise he ____ a goal. (2001 上海春)

A. had scoredB. scoredC. would score D. would have scored

13. If only he ____ quietly as the doctor instructed, he wouldn’t suffer so much now. (2000 上海)

A. lies B. lay C. had lainD. should lie

14. Without the air to hold some of the sun’s heat, the earth at night ___ , too cold for us to live. (1997 上海)

A. would be freezing cold B. will be freezing coldly

C. would be frozen coldD. can freeze coldly

15. You didn’t let me drive. If we ___ in turn, you ____ so tired. (1996 上海)


A. drove; didn’t get B. drove; wouldn’t get

C. were driving; wouldn’t get D. had driven; wouldn’t have got

16. _____ for the free tickets, I would not have gone to the films so often. (1995 上海)

A. If it is not B. Were it not C. Had it not been D. If they were not

17. Jane’s pale face suggested that she ____ ill, and her parents suggested that she ____ a medical examination. (1994 上海)

A. be; should haveB. was; haveC. should be; had D. was; has

18. I did not see your sister at the meeting. If she ____, she would have met my brother. (1994 全国)

A. has come B. did comeC. cameD. had come

19. ____ it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge. (1994 上海)

A. Were B. ShouldC. Would D. Will

20. The two strangers talked as if they ___ friends for years. (1993 上海)

A. should be B. would beC. have be D. had been

21. If the weather had been better, we could have had a picnic. But it ____ all day. (2008 全国)

A.rained B. rains C. has rainedD. is raining

22. They ___ two free tickets to Canada, otherwise they’d never have been able to afford to go. (2007 山东)

A. had gotB. got C. have got D. get

23. --- Don’t you think it necessary that he ___ to Miami but to New York?

--- I agree, but the problem is ___ he has refused to. (2005 江苏)

A. will not be sent; that B. not be sent; that C. should not be sent; what D. should not send; what

24. Had I known about this computer program, a huge amount of time and energy 浙江)

A.would have been savedB.had been saved

C.will be saved D.was saved

25. John went to the hospital alone. If he ____ me about it, I would have gone with him. (2010 天津)

A. should tell B. tells C. told D. had told

26. ---- The weather has been very hot and dry.

---- Yes. If it had rained even a drop, things would be much better now! And my vegetables ________. (2010北京)

A. wouldn’t die B. didn’t die C. hadn’t died D. wouldn’t have died

27. George is going to talk about the geography of his country, but I’d rather he____ more on its culture. (2010江苏)

A .focus B. focused C. would focusD. had focused

28. If we _____ the other road, we might have arrived here in time for the meeting. (2010陕西)

A. take B. had takenC. took D. have taken

29. --- Pity you missed the lecture on nuclear pollution. --- I _____ it, but I was busy preparing for a job interview. (2011 福建34’)

A. attended B. had attended C. would attend D. would have attended

30. — Where are the children? The dinner’s going to be completely ruined.

— I wish they ____ always late.(2011北京,28)

A. weren’t B. hadn’t beenC. wouldn't beD. wouldn't have been



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